Biology is the field of science that studies life and all the living organisms on earth. Biology is divided into many specialized fields that study the morphology, physiology, anatomy, behavior, origin, evolution, growth, and distribution of living things. Biology is a vast field, and as such is composed of many branches and disciplines. In order to best organize the broad scope of biology, a number of general and unifying concepts have been implemented to govern the study and research of organisms, and which consolidate all aspects of the domain under a coherent identification structure and taxonomy.
Sub Disciplines of Biology
Sub-disciplines of biology are defined by the scale at which organisms are studied, the kinds of organisms studied, and the methods used to study them:
- biochemistry examines the rudimentary chemistry of life.
- molecular biology studies the complex interactions among biological molecules.
- botany studies the biology of plants.
- cellular biology examines the basic building-block of all life, the cell.
- physiology examines the physical and chemical functions of tissues, organs, and organ systems of an organism.
- evolutionary biology examines the processes that produced the diversity of life.
- ecology examines how organisms interact in their environment
The Taxonomy of Biology
In biology, the tree of life is broken down into three domains: Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. Archaea and Bacteria are prokaryotic microorganisms, or single-celled organisms and their cells do not have a nucleus. The Eukarya domain includes all living organisms who’s cells have a nucleus and have membrane-bound organelles. Biologists developed a coherent identification structure and taxonomy system that creates hierarchy and rankings based on levels which begin with Kingdom, Subkingdom, Phylum, Division, Class, Order, Family, Tribe, Genus, Species, Subspecies, Variety, Form, and Cultivar.
Biologists adapted a five-kingdom classification scheme to separate and assign living organisms into the following separate groups: animals (Kingdom Animalia), plants (Kingdom Plantae), fungi (Kingdom Fungi), protozoa and eucaryotic algae (Kingdom Protista), and bacteria and blue-green algae (Kingdom Monera).
Domain Eukaryote Taxonomy
- Plant Kingdom – Kingdom Plantae
- Animal Kingdom – Kingdom Animalia
- Fungi – Kingdom Fungi
- Protozoa and Eukaryotic Algae – Kingdom Protista
- Bacteria and Blue-Green Algae – Kingdom Monera
What is a Plant?
A plant is one of the five groups into which all living organisms are traditionally divided into. A plant is a stationery living organism and as such needs to absorb nutrients from its surroundings in order to grow and survive. Typically plants have roots which are the organs of a plant that normally lie below the surface of the soil; however there are some types of plants which do have aerial roots. Within the scientific classification chart plants belong to the Kingdom Plantae family. Learn more…
What is Botany?
Botany is the scientific study of plants, including their physiology, structure, genetics, ecology, distribution, classification, and economic importance. Learn more….